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Section 6Soothing - Memories of Friends, Mother and Childhood, Souvenirs from family life, Characters...

Family Memory – Polish Explorer of the World BENEDYKT DYBOWSKI and HIS KAMCHATKA, album

Zgłaszający Eksponat:
Maria Dybowska
podziel się z innymi:

“Without a doubt, he can be counted among the most outstanding Polish explorers in the world.” This is a sentence from the study – the album of Ms Maria Dybowska, who devoted several years of her life to collecting and saving the achievements of this outstanding Pole – Benedykt Dybowski (1833-1930) from forgetting. A few sentences from his extremely rich biography: for taking part in the January Uprising (1863) he was sentenced to death in the Traugutt Trial, and then to exile to Siberia. He was one of those Poles who turned the exile into a creative and research life, who made a huge contribution to learning and preserving the memory of the world’s dying cultures.

His Kamchatka collection is the only one, priceless, scattered all over Europe, part of the collection has been destroyed by the passage of time and history. This one-of-a-kind study saves it from oblivion for present and future generations.

It is a wonderful example of restoring respect for great people and their great achievements in the culture of Poland, Europe and the world.

Thank you very much to Maria Dybowska for submitting this study to the GA.PA National Gallery (the album was published with great effort of many people and only in 400 copies!). We allow ourselves to place only a few photos from this album and, also with the consent of the author, the following texts to enable the search of basic keywords on the Internet, in specific matters directing interested parties to Ms Maria Dybowska ( mardyb8 @ wp.pl or mdyb6 @ interia.pl ):

– detailed table of contents
– a detailed list of photographs from Kamchatka (items 1-20) and photographs of collections (items 21-87).
– map list
– summary in English – for localization by global search engines on the Internet.

Once again, we would like to thank Maria Dybowska and express our highest respect.
GA.PA National Gallery, Warsaw, April 2004.
www.narodowa.pl


KAMCZATKA and HER AUTOCHTONICAL PEOPLE
The photographs, texts and exhibits
Benedykta Dybowskiego
were prepared by: MARIA DYBOWSKA
Authors of the photographs :. Benedykt Dybowski
Andrzej Kosydorski
Jacek Kubiena
Ighor Szydłowski

“There, in Kamchatka, everything was tried and only leprosy was successful … You will understand … why I advised this trip since.”

From Siberia and Kamchatka
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
1. Introduction 7
2. . Benedykt Dybowski (1833-1930) 11
– the most important facts of his life
– work and passions around which he built his life.
Texts in Russian (archives of the Irkutsk Geographical Society):
excerpts from Benedykt Dybowski’s letters
3. Benedykt Dybowski – Kamchatka years … the creators of the collection (1879-1883)
– preparation for the trip
– work and passions which he developed during his stay 13
4. The geographical environment of Kamchatka and the Commander’s Islands, based on his photos and descriptions 19
5. Autochthonous people whom Benedykt Dybowski came into contact with during his stay:
– Koriacy
– Itelmeni ( Kamczadale ) : . – Aleuci
6. The most important exhibits in its ethnographic. collection 23. . 7. Anthropological collections as a continuation of previous interests 35
8. Benedykt Dybowski as a linguist. An attempt to save. … .. Paleo-Asiatic languages ​​37
9. Doctor and social worker, “White God” 39
10. Returning to the country 41
– exhibitions
– Lviv cathedral and continuation of the research started.
Kamchatka and the neighboring islands in the photograph by Benedykt
Dybowski. 43
Kamchatka exhibits by Benedykt Dybowski through the lens of Andrzej Kosydorski, Ighor Szydlowski and Jacek Kubienna.

– anthropology 53
– nature 56
– ethnography 60
Selected literature 73
– Footnotes 74
LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHY
1. List of photos taken by Benedykt Dybowski
2. List of photos of selected exhibits from the PME collection. 3. photos from the archives of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Laboratory of the History of Zoology – Warsaw. 4. photos of skulls from the Anthropological Museum. …. . Institute of Zoology of the Jagiellonian University
. 5. photos of the exhibits of the Institute of Zoology of the University. . … of Lwowski. (Selected)
List of maps in the text
Texts in Russian (from the archives of the Russian Geographical Society) – excerpts from letters by Benedykt Dybowski

SUMM AR Y
. .

List of photos of selected exhibits from the Collection by BENEDICT DYBOWSKI
of the State Ethnographic Museum in Krakow
28499 – Basket woven from sea grass using the Kamchatka spiral technique
18972 – Aleutian Arrow: spars painted red, feather feathers, wrapped with a rope along the shaft – arrow for the bow. 18754 – Basket – Siberia, Kamchatka, on its sides there is a black geometric pattern. 18798- Model of a house on stilts, Kamchatka, a group of Itelmen, four rows of piles are set on a wooden base. It is a model of a summer apartment. (mess) 18966- Harpoon, Commander Islands, Aleuts, wood, bone, rope, bladder – for otter hunting. 24212 – Shirt, fish skins, found on the Amur 1886. 30705- Drum, Aleuts, Commander Islands, wooden hoop. 30605 – Doll trimmed with leather, stuffed with hemp 30648 – Children’s clothing, Kamchatka. 18984 – Aleutian fired at a seal, the figurine on a wooden base shows a lying man, holding a rifle resting on a wooden base, there is a seal nearby. 18978 – Dog harness, Siberia, Aleutian Islands, elongated part of the bones. with oblong opening .. 19025 Baby equipment, Kuril Islands. Wood, leather, fabric. The child is sitting on the board, the mother has it hanging on her back. 30567. – case for a knife, fur, thread, decorated with tassels – 30570 – Siberia, Kamchatka, Itelmeni. Rectangular, flat sheath made of brown fur, decorated with horizontal stripes, with a geometric motif 30 633 – Headwear to protect the eyes against the waves of the sea used by Koriak’s. -30681 A miniature model of skis, made of thin slats covered with thin gray skins. Thin strap ski bindings, Kamchatka. 30537 – a / b Shoes and fur, a gift from Benedykt Dybowski 1870. 30544 – a / b men’s trousers, Płw. Kamchatka, fur from reindeer paws. . 19115 – Dubas- outerwear, once fur, with hood and sleeves. 26140 – Arrow, Aleuts, hardwood shafts, iron spearhead. 30654 Handbag, Płw. Kamchatka, skin, swan leg. 30648 – Quiver-bag Kamchatka. 28458- Bone drum (sea lion), Koriacy 1886. 26165- Arrow throwers, Commander Islands, longitudinal plank with a hole for a finger and two recesses for two further fingers, varnished plank, place of attachment of an arrow, with bone passing through and in this place taped with canvas. Sea otter hunting arrows. -30649 a / b Summer shoes ,. Eweni, embroidered leather, decorated with beads. -23891 Javelin thrower, Siberia, Commander Islands, a board with a hole carved for a hand and other fingers, A place for mounting an arrow, finished with a copper plate. 19116 – a / b Fur stockings – socks, second half of the 19th century 30 569- Knife case, embroidered leather, flat, rectangular sheath made of yellow and brown leather. The front part is decorated with geometric motifs in green, white and red. Leather eyelet on the back. 30640 – Boots, chamois leather. A pair of women’s shoes with high uppers of brown suede. At the upper edge of the uppers, a piece of fur is sewn on, folded over the uppers. At the bottom, at the heel, straps to tie. Light yellow leather sole. 30605 – Model doll, bladder coat. . 18972 – Aleut arrow, wooden spars, circular cross-section, painted red. Shafts wrapped along the string Arrow to the bow. .18680 – Kamchatka dish with lid made of coconut. The surface and interior are smooth. The cover is made of a sawn off top. For web storage. . 28499 – Kamchatka, basket woven from seagrass in a spiral technique. 18974 – Arrows, harpoon wood, bones, feathers, gut string, spars painted red. 18983 – Kamchadals, dog-sled model, wood, leather. 19000 – Kamchatka Peninsula and Koriacy, model of the “Brabara” dugout, 24210 – Commander Islands, Aleuts, fish gut plywood. 19135 – Aleutian Islands, a parka made of bird skin including feathers. 30639 – a / b Kamchatka Peninsula, children’s shoes. 30620 – Leather bag, flat and round, from the top, closed with a flap, front decorated with a white leather application. 30534 – Evenks (formerly Łomuci), tobacco pouch, leather, beads. 18991 – Aleuts, three-person kayak model. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. feathers, string of intestines, spars painted red. 18983 – Kamchadals, dog-sled model, wood, leather. 19000 – Kamchatka Peninsula and Koriacy, model of the “Brabara” dugout, 24210 – Commander Islands, Aleutians, fish gut plywood. 19135 – Aleutian Islands, a parka made of bird skin including feathers. 30639 – a / b Kamchatka Peninsula, children’s shoes. 30620 – Leather bag, flat and round, from the top, closed with a flap, front decorated with a white leather application. 30534 – Evenks (formerly Łomuci), tobacco pouch, leather, beads. 18991 – Aleuts, three-person kayak model. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. feathers, string of intestines, spars painted red. 18983 – Kamchadals, dog-sled model, wood, leather. 19000 – Kamchatka Peninsula and Koriacy, model of the “Brabara” dugout, 24210 – Commander Islands, Aleutians, fish gut plywood. 19135 – Aleutian Islands, a parka made of bird skin including feathers. 30639 – a / b Kamchatka Peninsula, children’s shoes. 30620 – Leather bag, flat and round, from the top, closed with a flap, front decorated with a white leather application. 30534 – Evenks (formerly Łomuci), tobacco pouch, leather, beads. 18991 – Aleuts, three-person kayak model. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. model sleigh with a dog sled, wood, leather. 19000 – Kamchatka Peninsula and Koriacy, model of the “Brabara” dugout, 24210 – Commander Islands, Aleutians, fish gut plywood. 19135 – Aleutian Islands, a parka made of bird skin including feathers. 30639 – a / b Kamchatka Peninsula, children’s shoes. 30620 – Leather bag, flat and round, from the top, closed with a flap, front decorated with a white leather application. 30534 – Evenks (formerly Łomuci), tobacco pouch, leather, beads. 18991 – Aleuts, three-person kayak model. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. model sleigh with a dog sled, wood, leather. 19000 – Kamchatka Peninsula and Koriacy, model of the “Brabara” dugout, 24210 – Commander Islands, Aleutians, fish gut plywood. 19135 – Aleutian Islands, a parka made of bird skin including feathers. 30639 – a / b Kamchatka Peninsula, children’s shoes. 30620 – Leather bag, flat and round, from the top, closed with a flap, front decorated with a white leather application. 30534 – Evenks (formerly Łomuci), tobacco pouch, leather, beads. 18991 – Aleuts, three-person kayak model. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. 19135 – Aleutian Islands, a parka made of bird skin including feathers. 30639 – a / b Kamchatka Peninsula, children’s shoes. 30620 – Leather bag, flat and round, from the top, closed with a flap, front decorated with a white leather application. 30534 – Evenks (formerly Łomuci), tobacco pouch, leather, beads. 18991 – Aleuts, three-person kayak model. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. 19135 – Aleutian Islands, a parka made of bird skin including feathers. 30639 – a / b Kamchatka Peninsula, children’s shoes. 30620 – Leather bag, flat and round, from the top, closed with a flap, front decorated with a white leather application. 30534 – Evenks (formerly Łomuci), tobacco pouch, leather, beads. 18991 – Aleuts, three-person kayak model. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. model of a three-person kayak. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening. model of a three-person kayak. 30543 Fur trousers. 30541 – a / b Itelmeni / Kamchadale, stockings and socks, a pair of short socks made of white reindeer fur, trimmed with a strip of fluffy brown fur at the opening.
– Skis, model – wood covered with leather. 30631 – a / b Shoes with uppers, decorated with a wide belt of light, embroidered leather, laced. 19164 – Brown and white embroidered leather belt.
8145 – Fragment of a headgear, leather and beads. 30601 – Model of a cloak, chamois leather, fur, painted with paints, circles on cardboard. 26169 – Sled model, leather, string. 18988 – Aleuts, model canoe, two seated figures. 18991 – Aleuts, three seated figures. 18987 – Aleuts, boat model, fish bladder. 26133 – Sled model, wood, string, made of thin sticks and shavings, based on six trams, runners connected to the front by a shackle, sides braided with a string net. 18990 – Sled model, leather, bladder, wood skeleton. In the center, a seated figure – an Aleutian in a costume. 18980 – Model of a sledge, covered in a bear’s skin. 30601 – Bladder and sponge cape model. 26169 – Net model, string and leather. 26131 – Kamchadale, (Itelmeni}. Sleigh – model, width 6.5 x 38 x 11.5 cm. 30572 – A bag for a talisman, suede, beads, applique 30560 – Ball. 19014 – Birch bark vessel.
2. Private collection of Mrs. Władysława Dybowska (granddaughter of Benedykt Dybowski):
1. – Photo of Benedykt Dybowski from the period of his stay in Kamchatka
2-10 – Photos of Aleuts taken during his stay in the Aleutian Islands.

2 Collections of the Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences Laboratory of the History of Zoology – Warsaw

Photographs taken by B. Dybowski, including: .1. Hot springs Paratunks – swimming in a hot pond,
2. Photo of a bird on a stand. 3.. Aleuts from Bering Island,
4.. Children of Aleutians from Miedziana Island 5. River Paratunka – a farm across the river for fishing, 6. Kamchadalas 7. Aleuts on stables, – Kamchatka Islands, 8. Orthodox church in Kamchatka 9 A village in Kamchatka on Lake Jawiński, 10. Types of foreigners (Ostians). 11. Collage made on the occasion of the Kamchatka collection exhibition:
3. Pictures of skulls from the Anthropological Museum of the Institute of Zoology of the Jagiellonian University :. ………… .. Ajno I Kamchadal I Kamchadal III in four anthropological positions

4. Photos from the collection of the Institute of Zoology of the University of Lviv (the Benedict Dybowski Zoological Museum):

– Hydromalis 7 – Allcidae collection
– Hydromalis 3 – Allcidae collection 1
– Hydromalis 4 – Cephus columbus
– Hydromalis l – Synthiborhampus anti.
– Hydromails 5 – Urus bajkalnesis
– Anka domestica
5.pictures (COMMANDER ISLANDS):
– view of the coast of Gavanska Bay on the island. …… Miedziana
– view of the village of Gawańska on Bering Island
– view of the village on Miedziana Island
– male types from Bering Island
– types of inhabitants of the Commander Islands
– female types from the Commander Islands
– Sea cats


Summary
Kamtchatka and its autochtonic peoples in photos, texts, and chosen items from
B e n e d y k t D y b o w s k i collections

This photo album, is on the subject of collections of prominent XIX century explorer and scientfic investigator of Siberia – Benedykt Dybowski.
During his staying in Penisula Kamtschatka and Comandory Islands-(1889-1893) as a doctor he gathered unique items represented cultures of Koriaki, Itelmeni ,Chukchee and other indigenous tribes living in this reg-ion as fur,ski, caps, basketery, drumms, and the tools serving for hunting on sea mammals . The sea trade decided of mainetance of the indigenous tribes .The part of the collection are models of houses ,sledges,and 11 types of boats-.Transport of such objects from Kamtschatka to Poland was in the end of XIX century rather difficult ,so B.Dybowski ordered to prepare small models. Storing these objects he was keen on showing cultures of Kamtschatka Paleoasiats in many apects (Koriaki,Itelmeni ,Czukcze).In the opinion of scientists the are the eldest habitants of Kamtschatka and neighbour islands. – There were also a few objects connected with Evenki (Tungus) and Eveni (Lomuci) cultures , their south neighbours . Unfortunately a part of this collection doesn’t outline to the present time, but very like it may be find in many private collections in Poland and Russia. There are some simi-lar „ paleoasiatic” collections in other european museums for example in Oslo (Roald Amund sen collection ), in Wladywostok, Irkuck,Pietropawłowski kamczacki. ,but russian collections are not work out in comprehensive way because lack of the money.

Benedykt Dybowski because of his main work (medical doctor) in Kamtschatka Komandory and Berings Islands had taken also an adva-ntage of new situation : to gather words of Koriaks, Itelmen ,and other pale-oasiats.As a result of his work were prepared 5 dictionaries In Warsaw they were worked out by profesor Ignacy Redliński :

1. Dicitionary of Kamtschatka’ s indigenous people dialects
1 t. Ainu dialect ,lived on Samsund Island , on Kurylski mountains on Kamtschatka ,Filological Edition; II ser., 1882 (Disertation of Academy of Sciences )
2. Dictionary of Kamtschatka” s indigenous people dialects ,
2 t. „South Kamczadal s dialect.,Disertation of Academy of Science ser.II , (Linguistic Ed.) ,1893
3.Dictionary of west Kamczadale dialect , disertation of Academy of sciences, II ser.,Filological Edition , 1893 year
. 4. Dictionary of Kamczadale living by the river Kamtschatka dialect, ,ser.II , 1892 .
5. Dictionary of Kamtschatka indigenous people dialects ,Koriaks .east dictionary ,Academy of science disertation s,ser. II 1895
Paleoasiatic cultures, in the opinion of many scientists , were eldest in the area of Far North East,so the work of B.Dybowski has a great value.
.Presently peoples living on Kamtschatka are small: about 2400 Itelmens, more than 9000 Koriaks.Only 702 Aleuts on Bering Island. After 300 years of russian occupation Koriaks have broken down of their culture code. Till now nobody has worked out ethnological and anthropological notes made by B.Dybowski on Kamtschatka. …Very often they were written on the side notes of other no-tes. (botanical or zoological ) In the way to Kamchatka he catched different types of the birds, he observed a lot of sea mammals on Comandory Islands and Kam-tchatka, he was interested in protection of deer, bear etc.

Part of his letters were published for example in Wszechświat .Un- fortunately not all of his notes are preserved til now. After the transport of B. Dybowski collection to Poland, was showed in Warsaw and Lwow, and later in Cracow. Full catalogue of all items was prepared by the occasion of Lwow exhibition in 1894. In the beginning collection was deposited in Technical Industry Museum in Cracow. From the 1911 Kamtschatka`s collection has been deposited in Cracovian Ethnogra-phical Museum. At the moment not all items are posssible to present because they need con-servation .Most important part of this collection is fur and sea mammals skin’s cloth . It was very useful in polar climate, and changeable weather.
New cloth of skin is practically waterproof . Some types of cloth are typical also for other regions of Arctica ( Inuit too ). Cloths were prepared mostly of the skin of young reins ,because skin of elder is too heavy. Ornament was made of skin and of coral as well.
Photos of different types of cloths ,are enriched by technical drawings, helping to understand, how these cloths were prepared and de-corated. We included also technical description of skin preparation

Skin and fur of sea ammals are used also for preparation of straps parts of harpoons, skies and boats. Skin wasn`t only a row material used by paleoasiats they made also baskets, food boźes of sea grass, typical for arctic area.

As was said above, sea industry was typical for arctic indegenous people. but they learned melting technology of metals from their neighbours.
Benedykt Dybowski collection contains as well: arrows, harpoons, models of eleven types of boats. They organised life of coast paleoasiats . Boats weren`t only one possibility of transport known for indiegenous people of Kamtschat-ka.Their objects of daily use are sledges, skiies, and snow rackets.too . Collection includes also such items as drumm from Aleuts Islands. It was used probably by shamans, to put them in extasy, but not so many of ori-gnal drumms are still protect in Kamchatka museums. It is not only one musical instrument in this collection is Jewish harp,but its not orgi-nal paleoasiatic instrument, it was adopted by indigenous people from Europe . …Paleoasiatics cultures were destroyed by russian influence, during two hundred years. Contemporary small groups of indigenous people live in Kamtschatka and neighbor isla-nds.Working with any subject of paleoasiatic culture is necessary to remember that Kamtschatka was closed for about forty years for outward influence.

Collection in State Cracovian Ethnographical Museum isn`t only his one collection in Poland. There are also six skulls of Kamtschatka paleoasiats and Ainu in Anthropo-logical Museum in Cracow.
Besides his ethnographical interests, he was also fasci-nated in anthropological problems in very many texts. He called anthropology the „ queen of sciences”.

Our researche wasn’t easy, also because of lack of etno-graphical, and historical non -russian texts. Russian texts and statistics not always can be treated as reliable research sour-ces. We are conscioused that our work is lack of informa-tions about paleosiatic’ s cultures ,but anyway some know-ledge about them can be protected for next gene-rations.

Author of the album and translated by Maria Dybowska – mardyb8 @ wp.pl lub mdyb6 @ interia.pl

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